Species Fact: The Margay


Name:

This wide-ranging South American cat has many names. The most common one — “margay” — is French; this sounds similar to “maracaya,” a Brazilian native word for “cat.”

According to the Cat Specialist Group, other local names include, but aren’t limited to:

  • Burricon (Ecuador)
  • Kuichua (Guyana)
  • Caucel (Honduras)
  • Chulul (Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula)

Yes, margays get around. And, per the Spanish Wikipedia, they are also known as “gato tigre” or “tigrillo.”

Brian Gratwicke, CC BY 2.0

The margay’s scientific name is straightforward: Leopardus wiedii.

In the past, boffins have identified up to 11 subspecies but that’s debatable now.

Kitchener et al. (2017) suspect there might be only three margay subspecies:

  1. Leopardus wiedii wiedii, south of the Amazon
  2. L. w. vigens, in South America north of the Amazon
  3. L. w. glauculus, in Central America

Lineage:

Ocelot.

Outstanding Features:

  1. Distinctive physical characteristics like huge, bulging eyes, which narrow this nocturnal predator’s muzzle and make the nose look almost pug-like; very large paws, the better to grasp tree bark and branches (see below); and a long, thick tail that helps these cats balance during their tree-top acrobatics.(Cat Specialist Group; Kitchener et al., 2010)


    “Resting” also includes play.


  2. Strongly associated with forests, and better adapted to them than other tropical cats in the Americas. This fondness for trees misled early researchers into thinking that margays spend most of their lives up in the canopy. Camera traps and other studies now show that the margay probably just rests up there during the day, and at night it hunts and travels on the ground. But, while other cats are fairly flexible about their surroundings, margays do live almost exclusively in forests. Modeling by Espinosa et al. suggests that this might be due to the humidity and fairly steady temperatures that tropical forests provide. (Cat Specialist Group; Migliorini et al.; de Oliveira et al., 2010)
  3. The only New World cat with 180-degree ankles. With this feature, a margay’s hind feet can hold on while the cat comes out of a tree head first. Most other kitties would fall. Asia’s marbled cats and clouded leopards are the only other members of family Felidae with this ankle flexibility. (Cat Specialist Group; Migliorini et al.; de Oliveira et al., 2010)
  4. Not much sexual dimorphism. That sounds a little funky, but it only means that males and females are about the same size. Most other cats are dimorphic, that is, the males are bigger than the females. (Cat Specialist Group; de Oliveira et al. (2015))
  5. One of the Latin American cats most heavily exploited by the fur trade until the 1980s. Between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s, at least 125,000 margay pelts were traded. This species were added to the international treaties protecting endangered species in the late 1980s and it really helped. However, illegal hunting continues in some areas. (Cat Specialist Group)

    Data:

    This information is from the Cat Specialist Group, except where noted.

    Tambako the Jaguar, CC BY-ND 2.0

    • Weight: 5 to 11 pounds.
    • Height at the shoulder: 12 to 18 inches. (Murray and Gardner)
    • Body length: 18 to 27 inches.
    • Tail length: 9 to 21 inches. Per Kitchener et al. (2010), margay tails can be up to 70% of the combined head/body length — a very effective balancing tool!
    • Coat: Thick but soft, typically yellowish, though the fur can be browner. Kitchener et al. (2017) mention a study that found Central American margays are not only smaller but a little grayer than their South American counterparts. The markings of dark brown or black rosettes are very similar to the ocelot’s (some South Americans even call margays “little ocelots”). On some individuals, rosettes may be elongated and arranged in stripe-like rows (again, just like the ocelot). Margays have two cheek stripes, as well as white fur on their underparts, and a ringed tail.
    • Litter size: 1 to 2.

    Where found in the wild:

    BhagyaMani via Wikimedia, CC BY-SA 4.0

    Margays are occasionally seen in the US Southwest, but these are probably just individuals from Mexico, wandering around.

    The margay’s main range isn’t well understood yet, since this is a shy, elusive forest dweller and very difficult to track. Per latest reports by the Cat Specialist Group and de Oliveira et al. (2015), breeding populations of margays are probably distributed from Mexico’s lowlands in the north down through Central America and into South America as far Uruguay and northern Argentina.

    Their main stronghold probably is the Amazon Basin. Margays are common in some parts of Central America, but outside of Amazonia they seem to be rare, perhaps because of the “ocelot effect” (ocelots — bigger than margays and the dominant tropical small cat in the Americas — sometimes prey on their smaller feline neighbors, who therefore avoid them). (Cat Specialist Group; de Oliveira et al, 2010 and 2015)


    Margays do not breed well in captivity, so many now in zoos were born in the wild. Not this little one, though. (Image: Lubos Chlubny/Shutterstock)


    Habitat:

    • Range of environments: Margays appear to be most comfortable from sea level up to around 5,000 feet, but they’ve been seen at elevations almost twice that high in the Andes. At those heights, plants must sometimes depend on passing clouds for moisture. Besides cloud forests, margays hunt through humid foothill woods, among deciduous trees, and in subtropical forests, as well as in the Amazon rainforest. They will use human-altered environments, like abandoned plantations, but seem to be less tolerant of such changes than tiger cats or ocelots. (Cat Specialist Group)
    • Prey base: Mostly small mammals (weight of a pound or less) that come out at night, particularly rodents; next on the menu are birds and lizards. Margays occasionally take slightly larger mammals, too, like squirrels, rabbits, or small monkeys, as well as poultry, though not to any great extent, though margays are persecuted as pests in some places. (Cat Specialist Group; de Oliveira et al., 2015)
    • Example of guild: There are all sorts of predators in the margay’s range, but I could only find studies that looked at cats (this could be partly because all other South American carnivores are generalists, taking what they get instead of existing on meat alone like cats).

      Jaguars and pumas aren’t the only cats in Latin America. Ocelots are a little smaller, but they’re anywhere from two to four times as large as the rest of the feline carnivore guild, so the “ocelot effect” on these small cats (which include the margay) is understandable.

      A resting jaguarundi in Central America. (Image: Brian Fagan, CC BY 2.0)

      Margays and jaguarundis are next in size after ocelots. And jaguarundis — relatives of the puma — usually outnumber margays everywhere.

      The margay is second most numerous small cat throughout Amazonia and Central America. In the Atlantic rainforest on Brazil’s eastern coast, margays vie with southern tiger cats for second place.

      In open areas, you hardly ever see a margay unless there are patches of forest around; on the Brazilian pampas, for example, margays are present but vastly outnumbered by jaguarundis and two of the smaller South American wild felines: Geoffroy’s cat and (of course) the pampas cat. (Espinosa et al.; Migliorini et al; de Oliveira et al., 2010; de Oliveira and Pereira)

    Red-list status:

    Vulnerable, though the red-listing team (de Oliveira et al, 2015) note that more studies are needed to get an accurate idea of the margay’s status and distribution.


    Featured image: David O’Brien/Shutterstock


    Sources:

    Cat Specialist Group. 2019. Margay. http://www.catsg.org/index.php?id=89 Last accessed December 28, 2019.

    Culver, M.; Driscoll, C.; Eizirik, E.; & Spong, G. 2010. Genetic applications in wild felids, in Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids, ed. Macdonald, D. W., and Loveridge, A. J., 107-124. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Espinosa, C. C.; Trigo, T. C.; Tirelli, F. P.; da Silva, L. G.; and others. 2017. Geographic distribution modeling of the margay (Leopardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi): a comparative assessment. Journal of Mammalogy, 99(1): 252-262.

    Johnson, W. E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; and others. 2006. The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment. Science, 311:73-77.

    Kitchener, A. C.; Van Valkenburgh, B.; and Yamaguchi, N. 2010. Felid form and function, in Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids, ed. Macdonald, D. W., and Loveridge, A. J., 83-106. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; and others. 2017. A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group. https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/32616/A_revised_Felidae_Taxonomy_CatNews.pdf

    Migliorini, R. P.; Peters, F. B.; Favarini, M. O.; and Kasper, C. B. 2018. Trophic ecology of sympatric small cats in the Brazilian Pampa. PloS one, 13(7): e0201257. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0201257

    Murray, J. L., and Gardner, G. L. 1997. Leopardus pardalis. Mammalian species, (548): 1-10. https://academic.oup.com/mspecies/article-pdf/doi/10.2307/3504082/8071434/548-1.pdf (PDF download)

    de Oliveira, T. G., and Pereira, J. A. 2014. Intraguild predation and interspecific killing as structuring forces of carnivoran communities in South America. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 21(4): 427-436.

    de Oliveira, T. G.; Tortato, M. A.; Silveira, L.; Kasper, C. B.; and others. 2010. Ocelot ecology and its effect on the small-felid guild in the lowland neotropics, in Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids, ed. Macdonald, D. W., and Loveridge, A. J., 559-580. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    de Oliveira, T.; Paviolo, A.; Schipper, J.; Bianchi, R.; and others. 2015. Leopardus wiedii . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T11511A50654216 https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/11511/50654216

    Werdelin, L., and Olsson, L. 1997. How the leopard got its spots: a phylogenetic view off the evolution of felid coat patterns. Biological Journal of the Linnaen Society, 62: 383-400.

    Wikipedia. 2019. Margay https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margay Last accessed December 28, 2019.

    Wikipedia (Spanish). 2019. Leopardus wiedii. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopardus_wiedii Last accessed December 28, 2019.




Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.